International shipping is a cornerstone of the global economic system since it accounts for about 90% of the world trade [International Chamber of Shipping ]. However, this growing transport sector consumes large proportions of fossil fuel (Figure 1) and releases as a result significant amounts of trace gases and particulate matter into the atmosphere. For instance, about 3% of the current global carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration has been attributed to the global shipping activity [Buhaug et al., 2009]. Furthermore, shipping emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) might well be about 10 times larger than those from aviation [Buhaug et al., 2009 ; Eyring et al., 2007]. Nevertheless, the Kyoto Protocol does not cover CO2 emissions from shipping and there is still no international agreement to curb emissions of non-CO2 species [UNFCCC, 1997]. Instead, the IMO has been given the task to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and their precursors. Although the IMO has made substantial progress on this issue [MEPC 59 ; MEPC 60 ; MEPC 61 ; MEPC 62] but further work would be needed to avoid dangerous climate change.
A few scientific studies have looked at the impacts of shipping emissions on radiative forcing and climate [Endresen et al., 2003 ; Lee et al., 2006 ; Eyring et al., 2007 ; Fuglestvedt et al., 2008 ; Hoor et al., 2009 ; Eyring et al., 2009 ; Myhre et al., 2011 ; Hodnebrog et al., 2011]. Eyring et al.  compiled radiative forcing estimates reported in the literature and calculated that global shipping could be responsible for -0.4 W.m-2 in 2005 when aerosols effects are included. However, significant uncertainties remain owing to the different methodologies, models, emissions and other input data employed in these studies (Figure 2).
CATE is committed to estimating the impacts of shipping on climate by using various methodologies and modelling approaches. A list of the projects that have been undertaken or are currently carried out by members of the group is given below and a more detailed description of them follows after:
In addition, a report summarising the state of the science regarding the impacts of shipping emissions on climate has been produced by Lee et al. .
Lee et al.  calculated the radiative forcing of CO2 and NOx resulting from shipping emissions and estimated it to be respectively 43 mW.m-2 and 10 mW.m-2 respectively. Actually, NOx is not a significant greenhouse gas but has the potential to perturb the concentrations of O3 and CH4 in the atmosphere. The NOx radiative forcing may therefore be further decomposed into O3 (21 mW.m-2) and CH4 (-11 mW.m-2). An important finding from this study was the comparison of shipping RF with aviation RF which was estimated to be 1.8 to 2.7 times larger.
As mentioned in the previous section, shipping NOx emissions alter O3 concentrations which in turn increase OH concentrations and result in a decrease of CH4 lifetime (depletion of CH4). With the help of the MOZART-4 GCTM and the Edwards-Slingo RTM, Hilaire et al., 2009 showed for the first time the spatial variability of the O3 and CH4 RF and proved that these forcings do not cancel out. This finding was later used in the second IMO study on greenhouse gases (Figure 3).
A more detailed description of this work as well as the content of Jerome’s thesis will be available this autumn.
Buhaug, Ø.; Corbett, J.J.; Endresen, Ø.; Eyring, V.; Faber, J.; Hanayama, S.; Lee, D.S.; Lee, D.; Lindstad, H.; Markowska, A.Z.; Mjelde, A.; Nelissen, D.; Nilsen, J.; Pålsson, C.; Winebrake, J.J.; Wu, W.–Q.; Yoshida, K., Second IMO GHG study 2009; International Maritime Organization (IMO) London, UK, April 2009;
Endresen, Ø., Sorgard, E., Sundet, J. K., Dalsøren, S. B., Isaksen, I. S. A., Berglen, T. F., and Gravir, G.: Emission from international sea transportation and environmental impact, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 108(D17), 4560, doi:10.1029/2002jd002898, 2003.
Eyring, V., Stevenson, D. S., Lauer, A., Dentener, F. J., Butler, T., Collins, W. J., Ellingsen, K., Gauss, M., Hauglustaine, D. A., Isaksen, I. S. A., Lawrence, M. G., Richter, A., Rodriguez, J. M., Sanderson, M., Strahan, S. E., Sudo, K., Szopa, S., van Noije, T. P. C., and Wild, O.: Multi-model simulations of the impact of international shipping on Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate in 2000 and 2030, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 757–780, doi:10.5194/acp-7-757-2007, 2007.
Eyring, V., Isaksen, I. S. A., Berntsen, T., Collins, W. J., Corbett, J. J., Endresen, O., Grainger, R. G., Moldanova, J., Schlager, H., and Stevenson, D. S.: Transport impacts on atmosphere and climate: shipping, Atmos. Environ., 44, 4735–4771, 10 doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009.04.059, 2010
Fuglestvedt, J., Berntsen, T., Myhre, G., Rypdal, K., and Skeie, R. B.: Climate forcing from the transport sectors, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 105, 454–458, doi:10.1073/pnas.0702958104, 2008.
Hilaire J. et al. – Do the radiative forcing of O3 and CH4 cancel out? – Proceedings of the TAC-2 conference Aachen, Germany, 2009
Hodnebrog Ø., T.K. Berntsen, O. Dessens, M. Gauss, V. Grewe, I.S.A. Isaksen, B. Koffi, D. Olivie, M. J. Prather, J. A. Pyle, F. Stordal, S. Szopa, Q. Tang, P. van Velthoven, J. E. Williams, and K. Odemark, Future impact of non-land based traﬃc emissions on atmospheric ozone and OH an optimistic scenario and a possible mitigation strategy, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 11, 16801-16859, www.atmos-chem-phys-discuss.net/11/16801/2011, doi:10.5194/acpd-11-16801-2011, 2011
Hoor, P., Borken-Kleefeld, J., Caro, D., Dessens, O., Endresen, Ø., Gauss, M., Grewe, V., Hauglustaine, D., Isaksen, I. S. A., J¨ ockel, P., Lelieveld, J., Myhre, G., Meijer, E., Olivie, D., Prather, M., Schnadt Poberaj, C., Shine, K. P., Staehelin, J., Tang, Q., van Aardenne, J., van Velthoven, P., and Sausen, R.: The impact of traﬃc emissions on atmospheric ozone and OH: results from QUANTIFY, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 3113–3136, doi:10.5194/acp-9-3113-2009, 2009
Lee, D. S. et al. – Radiative forcing and temperature response from shipping – Proceedings of the TAC conference June 26 to 29 2006, Oxford, UK
Lee, D.S. Shipping and climate change: a science review & research needs. DECC, 2010
Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) 59th session: 13-17 July 2009, <www.imo.org>
Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) 60th session: 22-26 March 2010, <www.imo.org>
Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) 61th session: 27 September to 1 October 2010, <www.imo.org>
Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) 62th session: 11-15 July 2011, <www.imo.org>
Myhre, G., Shine, K. P., R¨ adel, G., Gauss, M., Isaksen, I. S. A., Tang, Q., Prather, M. J., Williams, J. E., van Velthoven, P., Dessens, O., Koﬃ, B., Szopa, S., Hoor, P., Grewe, V., Borken-Kleefeld, J., Berntsen, T. K., and Fuglestvedt, J. S.: Radiative forcing due to changes in ozone and methane caused by the transport sector, Atmos. Environ., 45, 387–394, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2010.10.001, 2011.
“Kyoto Protocol.” United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Web. 26 Nov. 2009. <http://www.unfccc.int>